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Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis

Introduction

Hepatitis B is a liver infection that causes both chronic and acute conditions (Shih, 2013). An acute Hepatitis B condition is the initial or the newly acquired infection while chronic condition is one that is caused by the Hepatitis B virus abbreviated as HBV and normally lasts for quite a long time from 6 months and beyond (Moore, 2006). A chronic condition that is brought by the Hepatitis B virus is not curable. The disease has very few symptoms to show during its initial stages. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of its symptoms, treatment, prevention, and prognosis.

Symptoms

Every disease has its unique manifestations that doctors must analyze before prescribing any medication. Hepatitis B is not an exception. Despite its symptoms being easily detected in its initial infection stage, this liver contamination is a unique disease because it takes a couple of time for one to experience its symptoms. It is approximated that for one to start experiencing its effects, a range of 30 to 180 days is involved. Hence, it is very difficult for the victim to tell that he or she has the liver virus if one month has not elapsed since the virus struck. As Goldsmith (2010) confirms, the situation indicates that one can stay for a long time without noticing any conditional changes in the body. It is important to note that from statistics, approximately 90% of the victims who are infected during birth may develop a chronic condition in Hepatitis B while a percentage of only 10 may experience a chronic condition if they are infected past the five-year bracket from their date of birth (Goldsmith, 2010). From various trends, it is worth noting that the initial infection rarely may result in death. Some of these symptoms include. Slight sickness that is characterized by nausea and vomiting. The victim’s skin turns to yellow while the whites of the eyes grow yellowish in color. This condition is referred to as jaundice, which is caused by a yellow-colored substance that is contained in one’s blood known as bilirubin. Besides, one feels somehow weak and fatigued. Besides emitting dark urine, experiencing abdominal and joint pain, and development of slight fever, the victim also experiences appetite loss.

Treatment

Blood tests are the best examinations to detect the infection of Hepatitis B. This investigation can be done by screening the Hepatitis B virus in the blood and even taking measurements of its activity within the individuals’ blood. Moreover, it is also possible to detect whether one has previously experienced the acute condition and whether any medication was given (Goldsmith, 2010). This procedure is crucial to find out if the victim may have developed a resistant strain.

The acute condition is unique because it can recover without any treatment. Although the victim can recuperate without treatment, it is advisable for him or her to use some drugs such as paracetamol or codeine only if well prescribed by a doctor to ease some of the experienced pains (Moore,2006). The effect of nausea can be managed locally with the administration of a drug known as metoclopramide.

However, the chronic condition of Hepatitis B is quite severe. Hence, it requires proper medication and treatment. Ignoring it results in severe effects on the liver. The HBV can be suppressed by the administration of an effective medication scheme. Some of these remedies that physicians use for this suppressant include peginterferon α2-a, which is the first medication approach that a victim can be accorded. This kind of drug is used in conditions where the HBV appears in high levels (Madalinski, n.d.). Its effect is that it stimulates the body’s immunity systems to act against the attack of HBV and hence counter its activity (Colacino, 2004).

Once the condition is seen not to work after the administration of the first treatment scheme, it is advisable for the doctor to change the scheme of treatment with the introduction of antiviral medication. With this approach, the victim can gain immunity against the disease. In most cases, the condition is suppressed (Colacino, 2004). If this observation happens, it is the doctor’s advice that one is safe to stop any further medication. A precaution is supposed to be taken for one not to stop or cut off the dosage because the condition has improved since this decision may come with grievous side effects, which may lead to liver damage or drug resistance. However, it is crucial for the doctor to reveal to the victim that the two types of drugs have their side effects (Moore, 2006). For instance, one may experience diarrhea, skin itchiness, feeling unwell and feeble, dizziness, insomnia, some kidney problems, and the building up of lactic acid in the blood, a condition referred to as lactic acid. Liver transplant is also another medical solution. Since Hepatitis B is a liver disease, it affects the functions of the liver in a big way (Moore, 2006). A solution can be found by a successive removal and replacement of the infected liver. However, precautionary measures must be taken to ensure that the new liver is free from the risk of being infected. Other drugs that can be used for Hepatitis treatment are amivudine, which is administered in the form of a tablet, or an oral solution, which is administered once on a daily basis for at least 12 months. Adefovir dipivoxil, telbivudine, and enofovir disoproxil fumarate are other drugs in tablet form, which are to be taken once per day for a full year (Colacino, 2004).

Prevention

Although the medication described above may work for Hepatitis B treatment, people can take a couple of prevention measures (Moore, 2006). Once an individual is treated, this step does not mean that he or she is completely free from the disease. As stated earlier, the chronic condition cannot be adequately and completely cured (Colacino, 2004). The only process that happens is that the condition is suppressed to low effects. Preventive approaches for this healthy condition include desisting from having unprotected sex with an infected person. This measure takes account of all types of sex styles such as oral and anal sex, unless one is certain that the individual has been immunized fully against the disease. People should avoid sharing of any sharp objects such as the razor blade, nail cutters, needles, and other objects that may bring the risk of getting contact with the infected person’s blood or body fluids. When administering treatment, the doctor should ensure that every individual uses his or her needle or surgical apparatus to avoid transmission. Victims are advised to desist from alcohol taking until the disease is fully controlled. They should also avoid donations of blood from infected people. They should ensure that any blood is well screened to avoid cases of transfusion of infected blood to other people. Newborn children should be vaccinated to immunize them from any risk of contracting the disease from their mothers. All open sores and cuts should be well covered with impermeable materials.

Prognosis

An individual’s ability or chances to recover solely depends on the type of infection that one suffers from. For acute conditions, the chances of healing are very high as compared to the situation where an individual is suffering from chronic Hepatitis B (Moore, 2006). Although a certain treatment is carried out in chronic conditions such as a liver transplant and/or the use of other medication drugs, which may suppress the HBV, this process is mainly a long-term approach. Hence, gauging the prognostic probability, the chance of recovery is minimal. Therefore, one’s ability to be cured is dependent on the condition, which one is facing. The prognosis here depends on drug-induced liver injury. The prognosis is important in forecasting whether a certain activity is bound to succeed or not. Most doctors use it as a method for determining the length of one’s medication or treatment (Moore, 2006).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the paper presents Hepatitis B as a disease, which has adverse effects on the human body. Although Hepatitis B appears in two forms, it is worth noting that not all of them have severe effects. If it is chronic, serious medication is required, which is contrary to the other condition where one can stay without any medication and still recover from it. There is also a big risk to those who are infected by this disease in their early ages. This situation should be addressed immediately. For a good and proper administration and prevention, it is important for all people to stay aware and/or have the necessary information that is vital to their healthy living.

Reference List

Colacino, J. (2004). Hepatitis prevention and treatment. Basel: Birkhaeuser Verlag.

Goldsmith, C. (2010). Hepatitis. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.

Madalinski, K. (n.d.). Recent advances in Hepatitis B vaccination. Hepatitis B Annual, 1(1), 51.

Moore, E. (2006). Hepatitis: Causes, treatments and resources. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Shih, C. (2013). Chronic Hepatitis B and C basic science to clinical applications. Singapore: World Scientific.

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ApeGrade. (2022, April 12). Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis. Retrieved from https://apegrade.com/hepatitis-b-symptoms-care-prevention-prognosis/

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ApeGrade. (2022, April 12). Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis. https://apegrade.com/hepatitis-b-symptoms-care-prevention-prognosis/

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"Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis." ApeGrade, 12 Apr. 2022, apegrade.com/hepatitis-b-symptoms-care-prevention-prognosis/.

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ApeGrade. "Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis." April 12, 2022. https://apegrade.com/hepatitis-b-symptoms-care-prevention-prognosis/.

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ApeGrade. 2022. "Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis." April 12, 2022. https://apegrade.com/hepatitis-b-symptoms-care-prevention-prognosis/.

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ApeGrade. (2022) 'Hepatitis B: Symptoms, Care, Prevention, Prognosis'. 12 April.

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