The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition is the premier authority on psychiatric diagnoses. So all of the following information was taken from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition to present the most relevant information.
Substance-related and Addictive Disorders
Substance-related and Addictive Disorders occur during or after the use of psychoactive substances, characterized by vivid hallucinations. In addition, delusions and/or ideas of a paranoid nature, psychomotor disorders, the abnormal effect that range from intense fear to ecstasy are possible.
The diagnosis of substance use disorder can be applied to all ten classes of substances except caffeine.
- Sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics;
- Other unknown substances.
The DSM-5 does not distinguish between abuse and dependence, but there are criteria for determining the degree of a substance use disorder.
- Criteria (1-3) – impaired control over substance use;
- Criterion (4) – craving;
- Criteria (5-7) – social impairment;
- Criteria (8-9) – risky use of the substance;
- Criterion (9) – failure to abstain despite the difficulties caused by the usage;
- Criteria (10-11) – pharmacological criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Risk and Prognostic Factors
Biological, genetic, personal, social, and environmental factors play a significant role in forming the dependence syndrome and the use of psychoactive substances as its initial manifestation. Substance use disorder affects specific systems and structures of the brain. Parental dependence affects the formation of dependence in offspring and the development of behavioral disorders in them, such as aggressiveness, affective pathology, and deviant forms of behavior, and also reduces the adaptive capabilities of children.
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders can include mental health disorders resulting from an atypical response to short-term and long-term anxiety due to physical, mental, or emotional stress. Stress is characterized by psychological reactions aimed at adaptation, but it can impair the quality of life in some situations.
- Reactive attachment disorder is characterized by markedly impaired and developmentally inappropriate social relationships in most contexts. RAD can be caused by a failure to build normal attachments to parents or caregivers youngster.
- Disinhibited social engagement disorder can make it difficult for children to form deep, meaningful bonds with others.
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams associated with traumatic events, mental or physical disorders associated with trauma, and attempts to avoid warnings.
- Acute stress disorder is characterized by intrusive memories, negative moods, dissociation, avoidance, and/or increased arousal within the first month after a potentially traumatic event.
- Adjustment disorders state subjective discomfort and emotional disorders, usually interfering with social functioning and arising during adaptation.
Risk and Prognostic Factors
Considering acute stress disorder, with regard to the risk of developing it, there are biological, psychological, and social risk categories. Biological factors include genetic predisposition; psychological factors include characteristics of a person’s personality, for example, optimism and pessimism, various ways of processing information, attention, and memory. Various traumas and losses can act as social factors that subsequently lead to a greater manifestation of the disorder.
Obsessive-compulsive and Related Disorders
Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders are defined by obsessive thoughts – obsessions, the anxiety they cause, and actions to reduce anxiety – compulsions. The relief from these actions is temporary; in the long term, compulsions do not help but only support the person’s problem. With OCD, a person spends a lot of time on obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions; everyday life suffers.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder is determined by the presence of obsessive thoughts (obsessions) and obsessive actions (compulsions). The most common manifestations of OCD include:
- misophobia (an obsessive fear of pollution with the ensuing consequences and human behavior);
- obsessive thoughts of a religious nature;
- obsessive doubts;
- compulsive counting or anything related to numbers;
- obsessive thoughts in relation to symmetry.
- Obsession characterizes body dysmorphic disorder in which an aspect of a person’s body part or appearance is seriously flawed and requires exceptional measures to hide or correct it.
- Hoarding disorder is a behavioral pattern characterized by overbuying and the inability to throw away large quantities of objects that cover the living quarters of a house and cause significant suffering or deterioration.
- Excoriation disorder is an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder characterized by a repetitive urge or impulse to pinch one’s skin to the point of causing psychological or physical harm.
- Substance/medication induced obsessive arises directly from the use of drugs such as prescribed drugs, illegal substances, alcohol, or exposure to certain toxins. Medications or substances can cause symptoms and behavior of obsessive-compulsive disorder while under the influence of them or after stopping using them.
- Trichotillomania is a disorder of attraction manifested by the impulsive pulling of body hair. The main symptom is removing hair on the head, face, arms, chest, abdomen, and legs.
Risk and Prognostic Factors
The biological risk factors for OCD include various types of brain diseases, including trauma during childbirth and its functional and anatomical features and features of the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Genetic predisposition that affects the development of OCD can also be attributed to a biological factor. The psychological risk factor is also seen as possible by some researchers as a tool for reducing anxiety with an increased level of anxiety and aggression.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Fifth Edition. Academic Psychiatry.