Sexual Health, Aging Changes, and Diseases
Normative Aging Changes
There are various changes on girls that occurs gradually through puberty and adulthood. The initial puberty change is the development of breast buds. This happens when the breast and nipple starts to elevate. The other change is the growth of hair in the pubic and under the armpit (Brix et al., 2019). It starts with soft ones and becomes hard as they mature. Another change that girl experience as they grow through puberty is the hips develops and becomes wider than before. In addition to these, girls may start to experience menstruation. However, these changes may occur at different time because of individual’s differences.
The teenage years brings a number of changes in the body of boys. Firstly, one will start to see the chest and shoulder becoming broad. They are likely to experience alterations on their chest. Second, the larynx grows and the voice becomes deep (Brix et al., 2019). As a result, their voice becomes deep when they speak. Another change experienced during puberty is the growth of hair in the pubic area as well as under the armpit. The hair becomes thick and strong as they become mature. In addition, boy are likely to notice some hair on the face.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium known as Neisseria Gonorrhea which is passed through anal, oral or virginal sex. The symptoms in men include painful sex, pus discharge, at the tip of the penis and swelling in the testicles. In women, the most common symptoms include, painful urination, abdominal pain, virginal bleeding and increased vaginal discharge. The complications from this infection causes infertility in men and women, increased risk HIV/AIDs and infections that spread through the joints. The treatment is based on use of antibiotics that include ceftriaxone and injection with Azithromycin.
Chlamydia is caused by a bacteria called the chlamydia trachomatis which is transmitted through genital fluid contact with infected persons. The symptoms include discharge from the penis, vaginal discharge or bleeding, painful urination, eye spotting. The complications that may arise due to the infection include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, arthritis, pelvic inflammation, and infections in newborns (McCarthy et al., 2019). Treatment include administering antibiotics, such as Azithomycin or Docycycline drugs.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system rendering it weak and unable to fight against infections. The signs of this infection include rapid weight loss, night sweats, rashes, sore throats, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes and muscle aches among other symptoms (McCarthy et al., 2019). Its progression can lead to cancer, liver diseases, cognitive disorder, tuberculosis, and candidiasis. although there are no cure, the virus can be suppressed using the antiretroviral drugs.
Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease that causes blisters around the genitals creating a burning sensation when one is urinating. The symptoms include a group of itchy or painful blisters on your vagina, vulva, cervix, anus, penis, scrotum, or the inside of your thighs (McCarthy et al., 2019). The complications related with this infection include meningitis, brain and eye infection. The treatment of this infection include taking antiitroviral medication that suppresses the virus.
Syphilis is caused by sexual intercourse which results in the transmission of the treponema pallidum virus from the infected person. The symptoms of this virus may include genital sores, painless ulcers, vaginal discharge, proctitis, swollen nodes, weight loss, and itching (McCarthy et al., 2019). The complications of this virus include meningitis, stroke, dementia, sexual dysfunction, hearing and visual problems. The infected persons can be treated by administering penicillin and antibiotics. Treatment should be done for both parties involved for full recovery.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can be caused be caused by infections resulted through vaginal, anal, oral sex with infected persons. Can also spread through skin to skin contact and touching during sex. The common symptoms include genital sores, itching and painful sex (McCarthy et al., 2019). The complication causes various types of diseases including cervical, Penile, anal and vulvar cancer The treatment include removal or warts. Boys and girls are expected to be vaccinated to avoid contacting the disease.
Pregnancy is a process with a number of stages. It occurs a sperm fertilizes an egg after ovulation, the fertilized egg is implanted on the uterus where it grows. There are several methods that an individual can use to know whether they are pregnant or not. One of the techniques that is commonly used to determine pregnancy is the use of testing kit. As shown the image, an individual is pregnant when there are two lines (Dwyer, 2021). A complete pregnancy period usually last for about nine months or 40 weeks.
Prevention of Pregnancy
An individual who does not want to become pregnant may use several methods. First, abstinence is the best method of birth control that prevents pregnancy. In this method, there is no possibility of a lady becoming pregnant because an egg will never meet a sperm. However, if one cannot abstain from sex, they can adopt other methods of prevention such as use of male or female condoms, intrauterine devices, morning-after pill and many more (Cherney, 2019). The only problem with these methods is the possibility of failure.
Brix, N., Ernst, A., Lauridsen, L. L. B., Parner, E., Støvring, H., Olsen, J.,Henriksen.,T.B. & Ramlau‐Hansen, C. H. (2019). Timing of puberty in boys and girls: A population‐based study. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 33(1), 70-78.
Cherney, K. (2019). What do You Want to Know About Pregnancy? Healthline.
Dwyer, L. (2021). Pregnancy symptoms week by week: Guide to pregnancy stages. TODAY.Com.
Mayo Clinic. (2021). Gonorrhea – Symptoms and causes.
McCarthy, K. J., Gollub, E. L., Ralph, L., van de Wijgert, J., & Jones, H. E. (2019). Hormonal contraceptives and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections: An updated systematic review. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 46(5), 290-296.