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Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco

Journal Name and Year Published

Li, J., Haardörfer, R., Vu, M., Windle, M., & Berg, C. J. (2018). Sex and sexual orientation in relation to tobacco use among young adult college students in the US: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health, 18(1), 1-11.

General Epidemiology of the Issue

Young adults within sexual minority groups are at high risk for consuming tobacco. This paper investigates the prevalence of tobacco consumption among individuals with minority sexual orientations (bisexual, lesbian/gay, and heterosexual) young adult males and females who attend college.

Identify the study purpose

The purpose of the study is to examine the prevalence of tobacco utilization across sexual minority (bisexual, lesbian/gay, and heterosexual) young college adults.

Identify the study hypothesis(ses) (reviews or meta-analyses will not have this)

  • Hypothesis 1: The study hypothesizes that sexual minorities (lesbians, gays, and bisexuals) are more likely to use tobacco than heterosexuals, especially during their college years.
  • Hypothesis 2: Not all individuals from minority sexual orientations are subject to the same risk and prevalence of tobacco consumption

Data was collected from a longitudinal review of 3418 young adults in college in Georgia. The participants were aged between 18-25 years. The factors examined included sociodemographic characteristics (parental education, college type, ethnicity/race, sexual orientation, sex, and age) (Li et al., 2018). The study sample was divided into men and women, and a multivariate multiple regression model was utilized to study the indicators of tobacco utilization among these two groups. The study excluded individuals who distinguished themselves as “other” when answering gender and sexual preference questions. Out of the 3418 study participants, 3386 were the ones who participated in the Final study.

What study design was used?

The study design used was correlational. The study tries to determine the range of the relationship between multiple variables using statistical data. In this study design, the relationships among and between various variables are pursued and interpreted. The study recognizes the patterns and trends in data, but it does not explain the causes of the studied patterns.

Identify primary and/or secondary study design (cross sectional studies)

Statistical techniques used?

Univariate studies were undertaken to explore how every variable was distributed. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were utilized to evaluate the bivariate connections between dependent and independent variables. Specifically, the study compared the variable approximations of sexual preferences on every outcome of tobacco consumption between women and men by inflicting parity limits among groups utilizing the Wald Chi-Square Test. All these investigations were done using Mplus.

Binary logistic regression was used to map any tobacco utilization, while Zero-Inflated Poisson was used to model the number of tobacco products utilized. These analyses were handled via SAS 9.4.

Describe the main findings

This paper studied the relationship between sexual orientation and tobacco use. The results show that some subcategories of individuals with minority sexual orientations are at a greater risk for utilizing distinct tobacco products. Women in the sexual minority subcategories had bigger tobacco utilization differences in comparison with men. The results show that among men, gays and not bisexuals were significantly connected with cigarette consumption. The measures used in the study were the rates of prevalence. The study shows that there is a lower incidence of tobacco consumption among women. The design of the study can only give suggestions about relationships instead of providing causality tests.

Any bias or error in the study?

The sample might not represent the whole college student population in the region. The sample was too small to represent all college students in Georgia.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of paper (s)?

I like how this study presents important findings on the relationship between sexual preferences and tobacco consumption. The sample comprises distinct young adults with regards to socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial backgrounds and different colleges. However, I would have used a broader young adult population to increase the generalizability of the results. I would also have used a larger sample of diverse young adults to examine the outlines of tobacco use more comprehensively.

What is the conclusion/summary of the paper?

The study concludes that sexual minority women, particularly bisexuals, are more at risk of consuming tobacco products in comparison with heterosexual women. On the other hand, among men, homosexuals are at a higher risk of cigarette consumption in comparison with heterosexual men. These fine distinctions in the use of tobacco should enlighten interventions that target sexual minorities.

Journal Name and Year Published

Khosravi, A., Emamian, M. H., Hashemi, H., & Fotouhi, A. (2018). Transition in tobacco use stages and its related factors in a longitudinal study. Environmental health and preventive medicine, 23(1), 1-9.

General Epidemiology of the Issue

In view of the rise in non-infectious conditions associated with the use of tobacco in the recent past in Iran, it is crucial to get a general overview of the existing situation. This paper investigates the factors linked with tobacco utilization and estimates the likelihood of a 5-year shift in the phases of tobacco consumption among adults.

Identify the study purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the factors connected with tobacco consumption and to approximate the likelihood of a 5-year change in the levels of tobacco consumption among adults in Shahroud (Iran).

Identify the study hypothesis(ses) (reviews or meta-analyses will not have this)

  • Hypothesis 1: The prevalence of cigarette smoking increases with age
  • Hypothesis 2: Non-smokers are highly likely to become past smokers or current smokers

In the study, 5190 individuals between 40 and 64 years from Shahroud, Iran, were cross-examined in 2009 (first phase) and 2014 (second phase) about tobacco use. Initially, 6311 individuals were chosen for this study, but only 5190 participated in the first phase of this research (Khosravi et al., 2018). In the second phase, 413 people did not take part in the study. Therefore, 4737 people were the final sample size.

What study design was used?

The study design used in this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that characterizes the incidence of tobacco use in Shahroud, Iran. The prevalence is examined over 5 years. The primary function of this study design is to enable the researchers to address the research question with less ambiguity logically.

Statistical techniques used?

The economic status of the participants was projected utilizing principal component analysis (PCA). The population-averaged logit model was utilized to assess the effect of independent variables on smoking in participants during the 5 years (Khosravi et al., 2018). The relationship between smoking and age was estimated using the restricted cubic splines logistic model. Data analysis was conducted using R and STATA with a 0.05 significance level for all tests.

Describe the main findings

The results of the study show that the prevalence of cigarette use in both 2009 and 2014 was similar. Therefore, they were not affected by the time difference. Also, women are less likely to smoke cigarettes in Iran. Cigarette smoking is more of male behavior. Although the prevalence of smoking increases with age, after 55 years, the trend declines. Age is not related to cigarette smoking as a significant variable. Also, there is no meaningful correlation between the level of education and cigarette smoking.

Any bias or error in the study?

There were no apparent errors or biases in the current study. However, the study focuses only on the urban population, which makes it less practical as a representative of the Iranian population.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of paper (s)?

What I like about this study is that it is not biased in subject and data selection. The study participants are electronically registered, and data from the initial phase was rechecked for data entry errors. However, it would have been better if the researchers used a larger age group to show the influence of age on increasing the likelihood of smoking more clearly. Also, the study population should have been more diverse to include individuals from rural settings as well.

What is the conclusion/summary of the paper?

This study concludes that the prevalence of tobacco consumption in the population of Shahroud is low. However, the rate of transition from non-smokers to past smokers or current smokers is high. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct interventions on factors that impact the onset and stoppage of smoking. Also, awareness and education on the harms and risks of smoking are equally necessary.

References

Khosravi, A., Emamian, M. H., Hashemi, H., & Fotouhi, A. (2018). Transition in tobacco use stages and its related factors in a longitudinal study. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 23(1), 1-9. Web.

Li, J., Haardörfer, R., Vu, M., Windle, M., & Berg, C. J. (2018). Sex and sexual orientation in relation to tobacco use among young adult college students in the US: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1-11. Web.

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ApeGrade. (2022, October 6). Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco. Retrieved from https://apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/

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ApeGrade. (2022, October 6). Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco. https://apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/

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"Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco." ApeGrade, 6 Oct. 2022, apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/.

1. ApeGrade. "Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco." October 6, 2022. https://apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/.


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ApeGrade. "Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco." October 6, 2022. https://apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/.

References

ApeGrade. 2022. "Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco." October 6, 2022. https://apegrade.com/relation-of-sexuality-and-tobacco/.

References

ApeGrade. (2022) 'Relation of Sexuality and Tobacco'. 6 October.

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