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Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards

Patient-centered care (PCC) is a collaborative effort by practitioners, patients, and their families to ensure that physicians and systems deliver sensitive care to patients’ needs, values, and preferences. PCC improves the patient experience and has been linked to a variety of significant clinical outcomes for patients, including increased knowledge, medication adherence, quality of life, decreased anxiety, readmission rates, and mortality (Nyhof et al., 2020). Personalism is a philosophical perspective that articulates notions similar to those in person-centered care, emphasizing the individual as subjective, utterly unique, and in a self-actualizing relationship with others (Hakansson Eklund et al., 2018). Institutes and governmental bodies strongly support and promote the person-centered care approach (Coyne et al., 2018). With a rising emphasis on participation rights, excellent communication, relationships, and shared decision-making, a person-centered approach has become one of the key aims of health policy and current system reform worldwide.

Attempts to transform the culture of LTC by addressing the physical and emotional needs of residents and their families have been heavily influenced by the ideology of individualized person-centered care rather than institutional efficiency. Successful person-centered care reform necessitates a cultural shift throughout the company, building good and trusting relationships prioritizing the residents, their families, and staff’s needs and preferences (Donnelly & MacEntee, 2016). Administrators who follow this care concept try to give staff enough time and freedom to focus on each resident’s needs and desires (Donnelly & MacEntee, 2016). Through supporting teamwork at all levels of the organization, the goal is to promote job satisfaction and reduce staff turnover by ensuring that care-related choices are made by residents, their families, and employees.

In order to support PCC in a residential care home, several strategies could be implemented. The first strategy is based on exchanging information and its role in providing patient-centered care. In the Nyhof et al. (2020) study, patients expected clinicians to have active listening skills. This meant making eye contact with the patient, facing them rather than a computer, and only taking notes after they completed speaking. A common sub-theme was that patients wanted clinicians to allow time for dialogue. The information exchange strategy implies clinicians inquire about a patient’s personal preferences and circumstances and learn about their lifestyle and personal goals. Healthcare providers should demonstrate active listening and eye contact, avoid creating an atmosphere of a rush, and have time for discussion.

The second strategy emphasizes addressing the emotions and concerns of a patient. Clinicians should ask a patient about their emotions or worries. When healthcare providers were entirely focused on medical management and prescriptive in their approach, patients were hesitant to share such feelings (Nyhof et al., 2020). When patients did express emotions or worries in a study conducted by Nyhof et al. (2020), they wanted physicians to show empathy by indicating they heard and understood what was stated rather than disregarding or discounting those feelings, which was a common subtheme. Patients also wanted physicians to validate their emotions or concerns by assuring them that it was okay to express them and emphasizing that such feelings are normal and uncomfortable. Addressing emotions implies taking a holistic approach, expressing empathy, understanding, and validating emotions or concerns.

The third strategy is referred to as enabling self-management and its importance. In a study conducted by Nyhof et al. (2020), patients valued it when physicians explained the follow-up process to them, including whom they would see in follow-up, when and whom to contact, and how to reach them if they had any concerns or concerns crises. They also valued self-care guidance or instruction directly from the health care provider or from educational resources and access to educational seminars to help them prepare for self-care. The strategy emphasizes explaining processes and appointments, providing self-care instructions and advice, and referral to educational resources.

Two standards of practice, as reported by the Canadian Gerontological Nursing Association, are a caring environment and maintenance of autonomy (Donnelly & MacEntee, 2016). These standards are essential in supporting PCC in a residential care home. Creating a caring environment in a residential care home or other caring hospital provides patients with a space where they can feel safe. Providing a feeling of safety has many benefits for a patient, as it decreases the stress level and positively influences patient satisfaction (Donnelly & MacEntee, 2016). In addition, it improves the relationship between healthcare providers and a patient, which is a key element of PCC (Donnelly & MacEntee, 2016). The second standard is the maintenance of autonomy, and it is associated with admitting preferences of the patients. The principle of autonomy allows or enables patients to come up with their personal decision regarding healthcare interventions.

If I had to experience care in the healthcare space, I feel that I would appreciate the approach described in the article by Donnelly and MacEntee (2016). I think that patient-centered care is essential because, as a patient, I would like healthcare providers to admit my preferences, feelings, and emotions. Once I received care in a hospital, I was very scared and stressed because I did not have enough information about my state. However, after the physicians explained the treatment process and further self-care instructions, I felt much safer. The article has influenced me as a professional, and I think that I will implement the knowledge that I have obtained from reading it in the future. I will emphasize not only the professional medical side of the patient’s case but also their personal characteristics. I will do my best to admit a patient’s life circumstances autonomy and try to create a caring environment.


Coyne, I., Holmström, I., & Söderbäck, M. (2018). Centeredness in healthcare: A concept synthesis of family-centered care, person-centered care and child-centered care. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 42, 45-56. Web.

Donnelly, L., & MacEntee, M. I. (2016). Care perceptions among residents of LTC facilities purporting to offer person-centred care. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 35(2), 149-160. Web.

Hakansson Eklund, J., Holmström, I. K., Kumlin, T., Kaminsky, E., Skoglund, K., Höglander, J., Sundler, A., Conden, E. & Summer Merenius, M. (2019). Same same or different? A review of reviews of person-centred and patient-centred care. Patient Education and Counseling, 102(1), 3-11. Web.

Nyhof, B. B., Jameel, B., Dunn, S., Grace, S. L., Khanlou, N., Stewart, D. E., & Gagliardi, A. R. (2020). Identifying strategies to implement patient-centred care for women: Qualitative interviews with women. Patient Education and Counseling. Web.

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"Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards." ApeGrade, 24 Nov. 2022, apegrade.com/patient-centered-care-description-strategies-and-standards/.

1. ApeGrade. "Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards." November 24, 2022. https://apegrade.com/patient-centered-care-description-strategies-and-standards/.


ApeGrade. "Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards." November 24, 2022. https://apegrade.com/patient-centered-care-description-strategies-and-standards/.


ApeGrade. 2022. "Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards." November 24, 2022. https://apegrade.com/patient-centered-care-description-strategies-and-standards/.


ApeGrade. (2022) 'Patient-Centered Care: Description, Strategies, and Standards'. 24 November.

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