The purpose of this paper is to analyze the article Nurses’ experiences of ethical preparedness for public health emergencies and health care disasters: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. The article provides critical information about the ethical issues faced by nurses during catastrophic public health emergencies. An evidence-based research should be presented in a manner that is easy to comprehend. In line with the scientific requirements, the authors introduce the article in a clear outline, which ensure that the target readers get precise information. For instance, the authors provide case examples of the public health emergencies and the role of nurses in the emergencies. Furthermore, Johnstone and Turale (2014) present the ethical dilemmas that arise during public health emergencies such as the ‘mercy killings’.
Johnstone and Turale (2014) have a precise and an elaborate statement of the problem. The statement of the problem provided in this article gives fundamental tenets of the code of ethics that nurses should follow. The statement of the problem is aligned to the core mandate of the entire article. Therefore, it ensures that the target audience understands the significance of the study and possible applications of the findings.
The authors of the article provide a clear research question that seeks to determine the experiences of the nurses and ethical challenges nurses face during public health emergencies. Even though the authors had only one research question, its structure is in a manner that ensures that the relevant data is collected. The question acts as the basis for setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for data collection (Johnstone & Turale, 2014). The research question provides the basis of the study direction and gives the reader the glimpse of the expected type of the data. In scientific studies, research questions determine the type of the data to be collected. Another important constituent of scientific study is the formulation of the hypothesis, which provides the various perspectives of the research direction. The authors of the article did not provide a hypothesis; hence limited the readers’ perspectives of the research.
Scientific study should be backed by extensive research that helps to support or point to the gaps in the area of the research. A scientific study must employ a format that is easy to understand by the reader and should be backed by relevant information that relate to the discipline of the research. In the article, Johnstone and Turale (2014) use study materials that are relevant to the public health emergencies. In addition, the authors review articles that related to the code of conduct of nurses. Thus, the literature review ensures that the reader gets a wide scope of the issues under investigation. However, the literature review for this article is not extensive; hence gaps that relate to the area of the study and strengths are not established.
The authors apply qualitative approach to collect data. The qualitative data ensures that the perspectives of the nurses is clearly captured and subsequently synthesized by the readers (Johnstone &Turale, 2014). The qualitative approach is critical in providing individual perceptions. Thus, the selection of the qualitative approach ensures that the general ethical dilemmas encountered by nurses in public health emergencies are captured. The application of a systematic review in the inclusion and exclusion negates sampling bias and ensures extensive scope coverage. The extensive coverage ensures that generalizations of the data can be done with a high degree of acceptance. Despite the application of the systematic review, the study sample adopted in this article is relatively small. The systematic review pooled 40 articles, after exclusion, only 12 met the inclusion criteria (Johnstone & Turale, 2014). The sample of 12 articles is a relatively small, which limits generalization of findings. For instance, out of the 12 studies only one study established ethical issues.
The authors use Qualitative and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) to analyze the data (Johnstone & Turale, 2014). The use of the tool ensures that the data is synthesized and is easy for the reader to understand. In addition, the analysis presents a critical strength in the pooling and analysis of the data. The instrument provided the basis of aggregation of the qualitative data and subsequent generation of the descriptive statements; hence, forms the basis of generalizations.
The authors apply the qualitative data to draw inferences and make conclusions related to the study. The findings clearly point to the ethical dilemmas that face nurses in public health emergencies. The use of the qualitative approach and the application of JBI-QARI for the analysis ensures aggregation of data from the various studies is obtained and can be generalized.
The evidence-based research is imperative in the current nursing practice. There are many public health emergencies such as diseases, hurricanes and earthquakes. Therefore, the study provides the basis for understanding the ethical dilemmas faced by nurses in line of work in public health emergencies. The study clearly demonstrates the challenges nurses face; hence, the need for measures to ethically prepare nurses for the uncertainties.
Johnstone, M. and Turale, S. (2014). Nurses’ experiences of ethical preparedness for public health emergencies and healthcare disasters: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Nursing and Health Sciences, 16 (1), 67–77.