Hyperphosphatemia and Chronic Kidney Disease
The kidneys play a leading role in regulating and maintaining the physiological level of phosphorus in the body. The main task of the kidneys is not only to produce urine but also to regulate chemical homeostasis. Thus, the kidneys ensure the removal of metabolic residues from the body, regulate water-salt metabolism and blood pressure levels, and maintain acid-base balance and perform internal functions. Kidney health is a fundamental condition for the full functioning of the body. That is why it is essential to be aware of possible problems that can affect the normal functioning of the kidneys. Hyperphosphatemia is one of the medical problems and needs to be investigated.
Hyperphosphatemia is a term for increased content of phosphates in the blood. The causes may be kidney diseases, parathyroid gland pathology, severe general somatic diseases (Bacchetta, Bernardor, Garnier, Naud, & Ranchin, 2021). The brightness of the clinical picture varies from the complete absence of symptoms to evident signs of hypocalcemia. The diagnosis is made based on determining the level of phosphorus in the blood serum. Phosphorus is an essential element of the phosphate buffer, one of the regulators of the acid-base balance of the blood (Chan et al., 2017). The majority of cases of hyperphosphatemia occur in patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Unfortunately, there is no exact information about the prevalence of this disorder.
Many etiological factors can cause hyperphosphatemia. Often, this pathological condition develops due to the simultaneous influence of several factors acting on different stages of phosphorus metabolism. Violation of phosphorus excretion is the leading cause of hyperphosphatemia. Another reason is the release of P from the body’s cells (Zhai, Yu, Yang, Sun, & Wang, 2015). Less rare causes are transcellular shift, excessive exogenous phosphate intake, and increased absorption and reabsorption. Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition, treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis or in a hospital. Parenteral administration of solutions containing phosphates, if any, should be discontinued. Thus, it becomes evident that this disease has many causes and can seriously disrupt the work of internal organs.
The main research problem is the development of methods to prevent hyperphosphatemia, which consists of the timely diagnosis and treatment of those diseases and conditions that can lead to it. Although hyperphosphatemia can rarely be the direct cause of death, this disease is one of the most significant complications of chronic kidney disease. It is known that hyperphosphatemia is a severe risk factor for cardiovascular conditions in patients with chronic renal failure (Bacchetta, Bernardor, Garnier, Naud, & Ranchin, 2021). The basis for further work can be the prevention of this disease as a factor in the development of arrhythmias, exacerbation of systolic hypertension and hypertrophy, and other medical problems. The research question of this study may sound as follows: which methods of diagnosing hyperphosphatemia are the most effective? Why is it essential to develop more effective and advanced strategies for diagnosing hyperphosphatemia?
The main concepts of this study are hyperphosphatemia, chronic kidney disease, and phosphate binders. Hyperphosphatemia is a pathological condition characterized by increased phosphorus concentration in the blood of more than 1.46 mmol/l (Bacchetta, Bernardor, Garnier, Naud, & Ranchin, 2021). Chronic kidney disease — damage to the kidneys or decreased function for three months or more (Romagnani et al., 2017). Phosphate binders are medications used to reduce the level of assimilation of dietary phosphates; they are taken together with food and snacks. Hyperphosphatemia is an independent variable, as is chronic kidney disease. Phosphate binders, in turn, are the dependent variables in this study.
Nephrologists engaged in the treatment of kidney diseases will be the audience most interested in the results of this study. In addition, the interested audience includes nurses who take care of people with kidney diseases. Urologists, who are doctors of a broader profile but still deal with the kidneys and urinary tract, may also find this study interesting and valuable for themselves.
Bacchetta, J., Bernardor, J., Garnier, C., Naud, C., & Ranchin, B. (2021). Hyperphosphatemia and chronic kidney disease: a major daily concern both in adults and in children. Calcified tissue international, 108(1), 116-127. Web.
Chan, S., Au, K., Francis, R. S., Mudge, D. W., Johnson, D. W., & Pillans, P. I. (2017). Phosphate binders in patients with chronic kidney disease. Australian prescriber, 40(1), 10. Web.
Romagnani, P., Remuzzi, G., Glassock, R., Levin, A., Jager, K. J., Tonelli, M.,… & Anders, H. J. (2017). Chronic kidney disease. Nature reviews Disease primers, 3(1), 1-24. Web.
Zhai, C. J., Yu, X. S., Yang, X. W., Sun, J., & Wang, R. (2015). Effects and safety of iron-based phosphate binders in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Renal failure, 37(1), 7-15. Web.